Lawrence Heyworth I (1786 – 1872)

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   1. His childhood

Lawrence Heyworth was born in 1786 at Greensnook Estate in Bacup, Rossendale, Lancashire in north-west England, to Elizabeth Ormerod (ca 1751 – >1805) and Peter Heyworth (1743 – 1799). He was christened on 28 March 1786 at Newchurch, Rossendale. His family was prominent cotton manufacturers at Backup and active church goers. His father died when he was 13 years old. He had four brothers named John, Ormerod, James and George and two sisters, both named Susanna, although the firstborn of the two died at the age of two years.1-3 Lawrence started his basic schooling in Bacup, but later went to Hipperholme Grammar School near Halifax in West Yorkshire where he became the pupil of Dr John Fawcett of Ewood Hall. He then completed his education under Rev. T. Hudson at the Grammar School of Hipperholrae, also near Halifax. In 1802 at the age of sixteen, Lawrence left school and joined his brothers at his late father’s woolen and cotton manufacturing business in Backup.2,3

   2. His wife

Lawrence married Elizabeth “Betsey/Betty” Aked, a second cousin to Lawrence and the daughter of John Aked, on 23 October 1820 at the St James Church, Liverpool, Lancashire, England.4 Betsey was born in 1802 at Backup, where her husband was also born sixteen years prior. After twelve years of marriage, she died in 1832 at the age of 30 years.2,3 Her six young children, aged between eleven and one years old, must have really felt her loss and was most likely raised by nurses and nannies, as their father never remarried.

As 34-year old bachelor, Lawrence was a well-travelled, wealthy, influential landowner who held several enterprises at home and abroad, yet he had no-one to share it with and no family of his own. Maybe this was the reason why Lawrence scaled down his involvement with Heyworth Brothers & Co. after his marriage,1 so that it was no longer required of him to travel overseas for extended time periods away from home. That his bride was from the so-called poor workers class, didn’t seem to have bothered Lawrence, because he married her anyway. When Betsey married Lawrence at the age of 18 years, she worked as a power-loom operator in a factory.5 (A power-loom was a mechanised loom powered by a line shaft and used for the weaving of cloth and tapestry.)6 She must have been well acquainted with the daily hardships that faced most British subjects who were battling poverty and oppression in the early 19th century. The social disparity between the elite and workers class was still vast, in spite of some social reforms that were taking place.7

The marriage of Lawrence and Betsey sounds almost like a Cinderella story. Did Lawrence marry out of duty to help a family member in dire need or did Lawrence marry for love? I certainly hope the latter was true. I wish more was known about their courtship, and marital arrangement and relationship. And how did the sudden change in social status impact on Betsey? One can but wonder.

Lawrence was 46 years old when his wife died, aged 30. After her death, he remained single and became increasingly involved in railway initiatives, social reforms and political developments.1-3

3. His career

3.1 Commerce

Starting out his career at age sixteen at the family business Peter Heyworth and Sons where his brothers John, Ormerod and James also worked after their father’s death, his entrepreneurial aptitude and enterprising disposition soon emerged. By then, the business was renamed Heyworth Brothers & Co. and trade was limited with Rochdale, Yorkshire and London houses, and via these houses their goods also reached the Spanish and Portuguese markets. Lawrence proposed that their trade should be directly with merchants in these countries, in order to increase their profits and expand their business opportunities.1-3,8His brothers supported his idea, but thought of him as too inexperienced in commerce with no knowledge of Latin, to act as their tradesman on their behalf in a foreign country. Unwavering support came from his mother, Betsey Heyworth: “The idea was his own, he should be allowed the chance of working it out, and I have no doubt of his success. I have confidence in Lawrence.” By October 1805 at the age of nineteen, Lawrence left Backup on an anticipated nine day trip to Portugal. He left by stagecoach bound for Falmouth, Cornwall, a port town at the most southern tip of England. There he had to wait for three weeks for the next boat to Portugal. Lawrence didn’t let the time go to waste and within the month before he reached Portugal, he learned to speak Portuguese with sufficient fluency to conduct commercial negotiations. During his trip, he met a young German traveler for a commercial house in Hamburgh (Hamburg), Germany, who, once in Oporto in Portugal, introduced Lawrence to many local merchants. A young French merchant that Lawrence also got acquainted with, introduced him to the French Council, with whom Lawrence became very good friends and who in turn introduced Lawrence to several of the main Spanish houses. Lawrence soon received many orders for the Heyworth’s products at Bacup, as well as orders for other articles which he would take a commission on for supplying, thus starting up his own general commissioning business on the side, with his brothers’ permission. After two years, Lawrence successfully opened trade with the merchants of Portugal and Spain.1-3

Lawrence and his brother, James sailed from Liverpool to Rio de Janeiro in 1808 and their newly established branch in Brazil proved to be most successful and lucrative. So much so that by 1809 they felt the need to establish a Liverpool shipping and commission company to manage their exports. Leaving their eldest brother, John Heyworth behind in Backup to manage the chief manufactory, Ormerod and Lawrence established Ormerod Heyworth & Co. in Liverpool in ca 1810. The enterprise in South America continued to expand to Bahia, Pernambuco, Buenos Aires, Lima, Monte Video and Valparaiso. These branches were managed by junior partners, who were young men in their employ at the main factory at Backup, who showed much promise. Certainly, Peter’s sons applied what he taught them as children – “seeking equal privileges and the greatest good for the greatest numbers”. By now, South American produce such as sugar and coffee were also imported, but via their Germany-based branch in Hamburgh called Jackson, Heyworth & Co., established in 1817 by Lawrence. This was to minimise Britain’s high import taxes on products directly imported from South America.1-3 However, the Heyworth brothers remained partners in the textile business and trading for decades.10-12

Lawrence finally returned permanently to England in 1819 and bought Yew Tree Estate (9 km east-northeast of Liverpool) at Walton-on-the-Hill, in the district of West Derby, Lancashire. He lived in the Yew Tree Manor House on a 26 hectare estate, when he married Betsey Aked in 1820. The family continued to live in this house until Lawrence’s death. Lawrence also owned nearby Rice House and its 16 hectare grounds. 1-3,10

3.2 Railways

After his marriage, Lawrence became less actively involved in the commercial affairs. He started to focus his attention on the importance and practicality of railways. The merchant of Liverpool transformed into a land and railway proprietor, to the extent that he withdrew his capital from the commerce and invested it in the Ironways (railway industry). His brothers followed his notion and by 1836 their numerous establishments at home and overseas were sold to their junior partners. Over time, he became Director of various railway initiatives including South Eastern Railway, Kendal and Windermere Railway and Midland Counties Railway. He also held the position of President of the Backup Mechanics Institute until his death in 1872; a position he held for 33 years since its establishment in 1839. The institute was built on the site of his old school in Backup.1,2

He visited America, arriving onboard the Persia in New York on 3 May 1856. He was a shareholder in the Illinois Central Railroad in America, and provided some form of assistance, to which their officials were so grateful for, that in 1856 they named a station on their railroad line “Heyworth”, in Lawrence’s honour. A settlement developed around the station and the town “Heyworth” in Illinois was officially founded in 1858.2,13

3.3 Politics

By 1839, he gradually moved into politics.  While still being Director of Midland Counties Railway, he was elected second Member of Parliament (MP) of (West) Derby in 1848. He served in this capacity for two terms until 1857, when he relinquished his seat mainly due to his deteriorating hearing.1-3,14 It was during his second term, that he visited Illinois in America in 1856.

Still, thereafter he served in the English Office of the Justice of Peace as Magistrate for the county of Lancaster (Lancashire) until his retirement.14,15 The Justice of Pease was responsible for the conservation of the peace and of the hearing and determination of charges in respect of offences against it.

In 1856, a grant of Armorial Ensign (Family Crest) was awarded to Lawrence and his descendants, with the motto “Nil Dimidim Est” (“Nothing by halves”).2,16 Read here the detailed description of the Grand of Arms awarded. This authentic family crest is the asset of only Lawrence’s offspring, and is not germane to unrelated Heyworth lines or other variations of the surname such as Hayworth, Haworth, Hawoth, Haueworth, Howarth, Howorth, Haywood, Heywood, Heyward and Howard.17

3.4 Activism

Lawrence had strong moral and non-conformist religious convictions and expressed his views openly. As early as 1815, he opposed the British government’s intention to impose export tax, which would have also impacted negatively on their business endeavors in South America. By 1839, he was second chairman of the Liverpool Free Trades Association. He supported free trade and the right of people to untaxed bread. He approved of the abolition of slavery. He was a staunch, outspoken supporter of the Temperance Movement.1,2 In 1854, he became the first Chairman of the Liverpool Auxiliary, a temperance society who campaigned against the liquor trade.18 Later on he became President of the British Temperance Society. Lawrence also openly criticised political bribery, corruption and dereliction, particularly evident in the country’s House of Commons, thus was viewed by many as an advocate for political reform. Together with Joshua Walmsley, he founded the Financial Reform Association in 1848, the same year he was elected MP for Derby. Even after his retirement, he continued to actively promote commercial, moral, political and social reform. He wrote several pamphlets and books on these topics.1,2

   4. His death

Lawrence Heyworth I died at the age of 86 on 19 April 1872 at Yellow Tree Manor, Walton-on-the-Hill, West Derby.1,2,19 He was buried at the Liverpool Necropolis (now Grand Gardens Cemetery in Liverpool).20 The probate date was 13 May 1872. His estate was approximately 80 000 pounds – measured in today’s worth, about 122 million pounds or 2.1 billion South African Rand. His sons, Peter George, John and Lawrence were the executors of his estate.19,21 Lawrence had a full life with joys, heartaches, adventures and challenges. He was a visionary, and once seeing the opportunities, would pursued them. His views and actions were directed by a steadfast moral compass, and he didn’t recoil from challenging the wrongdoings of people in high places. Lawrence zealously impacted the world around him by trying to make it a better place for all. Whatever he did, he enthusiastically gave his best ….. even with his handwriting! What a dynamic and exemplary person our great-great-great-grandfather was!

   5. His children

The couple had six children: Lawrencina (*1821), Peter George (*1823), John (*1824), Elizabeth (*1825), James Ormerod (*1827) and Lawrence (*1831). All their children were born at Yellow Tree Manor, Walton-on-the-Hill, West Derby District, Lancashire, England2.3,22 and christened at the St Mary the Virgin Church, West Derby, West Derby District, Lancashire. The children were mostly educated at home by tutors. Lawrence and Elizabeth had 28 grandchildren; 21 girls and seven boys.16,23,24 

5.1 Lawrencina

Lawrencina was born on 22 October 1821 at Yellow Tree Manor. She was christened on 23 January 1825 at St Mary the Virgin Church and died in April 1882.22,23 She got married on 13 August 1844 to Richard Potter (23 July 1817 – 1 January 1892) who was an English barrister and business investor, and later Chairman of the Great Western Railway by 1860. The couple had nine daughters and one son. The daughters, who all later entered into marriage, were:  Lawrencina “Lallie” (1845 – 1906), Catherine “Kate” (4 April 1847 – 26 February 1929), Mary Elizabeth (1849 – 1923), Georgina (1850 – 1914), Blanche (1851 – 1905), Theresa (1852 – 22 May 1893), Margaret Heyworth (July 1854 – 16 March 1921), Martha Beatrice (22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943) and Rosalind “Rosie” (1865 – 1949). The long-awaited son Richard (1862 – 1864) arrived after eight daughters, and when he died at the age of two,15,25 his grief-stricken mother mourned for many years thereafter.26

Many of Lawrence’s granddaughters, together with their husbands, were liberal and outspoken individuals who actively promoted social and political reforms. Some of them became very well-known.

  • Catharine “Kate” was a fiercely independent woman who strongly disliked socialising with the upper class and avoided attending the elite’s annual parties and balls. She resisted her parents’ attempts to marry her off, eventually leaving home at the age of 28 years to emerge herself in philanthropic and youth work in Westminster, London. She had a warm, genuine personality and a hearty laugh. Kate married the 51-year old Leonard Henry Courtney, Baron Courtney of Penwith (1832 – 1918) on 15 March 1883, when she herself was 36 years old. Leonard was a journalist, politician and Liberal cabinet minister. The Courtneys had radical anti-imperialistic political views, argued against British expansion in Africa, including Egypt, Sudan and South Africa, opposed the annexation of the Transvaal in 1877, denounced the South African War (Second Anglo-Boer War) of 1899 to 1902 by founding the South Africa Conciliation Committee together with Emily Hobhouse (1860 – 1926) in April 1900, advocated armament reduction and called for peace negotiations as the only means of ending World War 1. The couple had no children.27-30
  • Georgina married Daniel Meinertzhagen (1942 – 1910), a merchant and banker,15,25,31 on 11 September1873 in the Parish Church of Standish in Gloucestershire, the ceremony performed by Richard Harvey, the Canon of Gloucester. At the time he was living at St James’s, Westminster and she resided at Standish House, Standish. They went on to have ten children and was a very wealthy family. An 1891 census indicated that the employees in their service included a school governess, a butler, two footmen, a nurse, an under-nurse, a cook, three housemaids, two kitchen maids, as well as three grooms living in the stables.31 Their son Richard Meinertzhagen (1878 – 1967) became a soldier, spy and ornithologist but was later unmasked as a fraud.32,33 And although Richard and Lawrence of Arabia met on a number of occasions and were polite with each other, it was clear that there was no love lost between them.34,35
  • Blanche married Dr William Harrison Cripps (15 January 1850 – 1923), a rectal specialist, abdominal surgeon and teacher, on 26 July 1877 at St George Church, Hanover Square, London.36,37 One of his former students and a colleague at St Bartholomew Hospital in London, was House Surgeon Dr Reginald Jamison, who married Blanche’s first cousin, Eanswythe Elstrith Heyworth. Reginald and Eanswythe Jamison are my husband’s great-grandparents (see 5.6).
  • Theresa married her brother-in-law, Charles Alfred Cripps, 1st Baron Parmoor (3 October 1852 – 30 June 1941) on 27 October 1881. He was the elder brother of William Cripps who was married to Theresa’s elder sister, Blanche. Alfred was a barrister who later became involved in British politics. He eventually crossed the floor from the Conservative to the Labour Party.38
  • Margaret got married at the age of 34 years on 12 October 1880 to Henry Hobhouse jr. (1 March 1854 – 25 June 1937), son of Henry Hobhouse sr. (1811 – 1862). Henry sr. made his fortune as a Bristol merchant in the slave, sugar and tobacco trade between England and Africa, the West Indies and USA. Henry jr., however, was a barrister who practiced as a parliamentary draughtsman, later head of the Bristol Bar, also to became Justice of the Peace for Somerset, and a Member of Parliament for East Somerset. He also was pro-chancellor of Bristol University.39,40 Margaret and Henry Hobhouse had seven children; Stephan Henry (1881 – 1961), Rachel (1883 – 1981), Eleanore (1884 – 1956), Arthur Lawrence (1886 – 1965), Esther Margaret (1891 – 1893), John Richard (1893 – 1961) and Paul Edward (1894 – 1918).39,41-45 The family resided at Hadspen House which is surrounded by 290 hectares of parkland near Castle Cary, Somerset.  The house came under the ownership of the Hobhouse family in 1785 when Henry’s father bought the estate, and it remained in the possession of Hobhouse family and descendants until 2013, when it was sold to the South African businessman, Koos Bekker.29,30,39,40,46-48
  • Martha Beatrice married Sidney James Webb (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) in July 1892. They were both prominent English Socialist economists and together they became economic and social reformers, co-founders of the London School of Economics and Political Science, supporters of Marxist principles, founders and editors of the New Statesman, and members of the Fabian Society and the Labour Party. Beatrice also was a suffragette – an advocate for women voting rights, like her older sister Kate. Sidney and Beatrice were both reburied at Westminster Abbey where their ashes are presently interred in the nave of the Abbey.18,49,50

TAKE NOTE: Martha Beatrice Potter (1858 – 1943) should not be confused with Helen Beatrix Potter (1866 – 1943), the well-known writer and illustrator of children’s books. Although they both lived at the same time, they were not related.

5.2 Peter George

Lawrence and Elizabeth’s second child and first son, Peter George was born on 10 June 1823 at Yew Tree Manor and christened on 6 July 1823 at St Mary the Virgin Church.21,22 He married Georgina Bevan (1832 – 1899) in 1851 in New York, America. She was the daughter of Eliza Tomkinson (1805 – 1880) and George Richard Bevan (1801 – 1865), a wine merchant.18,51,52

Peter George Heyworth was a businessman who is said to have earned 1000 pounds per week at one period and lost 200 000 pounds in one day. He drove the four miles into Liverpool each day in a carriage and George Bevan – possibly a nephew or brother-in-law – used to ride on horseback beside him.18 At the time of his father’s death in 1872, Peter George was living in Liverpool, Lancashire. He inherited Yellow Tree House from his father.18,19 Peter George Heyworth died at the age of 57 years on 12 October 1880, West Derby.18

The couple had twelve children and they had porridge for breakfast every morning.18,51,52 They were Charles Lawrence (1852 – 1923), George Bevan (1855 – 1940), Blanche (1857 – 1938), Florence (1858 – 1944), Rosa (1860 – 1946), Frederick (1861 – 1955), Elizabeth (1863 – 1944), Lucy Georgina (1865 – 1939), Harold Ormerod (1868 – 1940), Wilfred (1870 – 1845), Lawrencina (1872 – 1941) and Helen Beatrice (1876 – 1953).52

5.3 John

John was born at Yew Tree Manor on 9 October 1824 and christened on 23 January 1825 at St Mary the Virgin Church.22,23 John became a merchant. He lived at 18 Park-crescent, Regent’s Park, Middlesex, London at the time of his father’s death in 1872.19

5.4 Elizabeth

Elizabeth was born at Yew Tree Manor on 19 October 1825 and christened on 25 November 1825 at St Mary the Virgin Church. She died in August 1831 just before she turned six years old.22,23

5.5 James Ormerod

James Ormerod was born at Yew Tree Manor on 22 July 1827 and christened on 6 January 1829 at St Mary the Virgin Church.22,23 He attended a school for boys called the Liverpool Mechanics Institute.53 James later immigrated to Chicago in the state of Illinois in the United States of America (USA) where he married Julia Francy Diamond/Dimon (28 August 1843, Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA – 20 July 1926, Chicago). Together they had three children, namely James Ormerod jr. (12 June 1866, Chicago – 15 March 1928, Lake Forest, Illinois, USA), Lawrence (1870, Chicago – ?) and Frances Elizabeth Heyworth (1873, Chicago – 1949, England).54,55

James Heyworth jr. married 28 year-old Martica Gookin Waterman (21 October 1874, Brooklyn, New York – ?) in 1902 in Conneticut.56 He became a building contractor and a partner at Christie, Lowe & Heyworth in Chicago from 1897 to 1903, before he went on his own. Among others, he has executed government contracts for jetties at Portuguese Arthur, Texas, and Fernandino, Florida. From 1 November 1917 onward,  James Heyworth jr. was a member of staff at the United States Shipping Board in Washington, in charge of wood ship production.57 The second son, Lawrence Heyworth became a successful civil engineer. One of his legacies is the Heyworth Building at 29 Madison Street, which is a Chicago landmark. It opened in 1904. The construction of the building was supervised by Lawrence, on behalf of his father-in-law, Otto Young (1844 – 1906), a wealthy German-American real estate investor and wholesale jeweler who commissioned the building.18,58,59

The third child and only daughter, Frances, was merely a year old when her father, James Heyworth sr. passed away at the age of 47 years in 1874.54,55 At the age of 20, Frances married Sydney Rankin Heap (11 June 1866, Liverpool – 1957, Montgomery) in 1893 in the USA , and shortly thereafter returned to the United Kingdom. READ HERE the newspaper article about their wedding.55,60 The couple first resided in Liverpool before Sydney bought Mellington Estate near Montgomery in Wales in 1902. There they lived until Sydney’s death in 1957. The house, with its outbuildings and large surrounding parkland of 530 hectares, was sold in 1959 to the Evans family, and was developed into a hotel and holiday resort. READ MORE on the past life of Sydney and Frances Heap at Mellington House.61,62

Their one son, Sydney Heyworth “Syd” Heap (7 February 1902, England – 2000, Somerset West, Western Cape, South Africa) moved to South Africa possibly in the 1940s or 1950s.63 He previously owned the painting of his great-grandmother Elizabeth Heyworth (née Aked), which is now in possession of Maggie Heyworth, a descendant of Lawrence Heyworth (1870 – ?). The painting dates from 1831 and is still in its original frame.64 This painting is almost identical to the one at Hadspen House, with small differences introduced by the unknown artist(s).47,48,645.6 Lawrence

Lawrence jr. (II) was born at Yew Tree Manor on 15 February 1831 and christened on 16 March 1831 at St Mary the Virgin Church.22,23 He followed a military career. His wife was Rosina Kate Mortimer, a wealthy heiress, and together they had eleven children. One of his daughters, Eanswythe Elstrith Heyworth married Dr Reginald Jamison and they became my husband’s great-grandparents. READ MORE on Lawrence Heyworth II.

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  1. Lawrence Heyworth – the beginning of the South American connection. Extracted from History of the forest of Rossendale by Thomas Newbigging, 1893. http://extra.bccy.org.uk/gibson/lawrence_heyworth
  2. Lawrence Heyworth. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Heyworth
  3. Greensnook House. http://www.bacuptimes.co.uk/index_htm_files/Greensnook_House
  4. Marriage of Lawrence Heyworth. England & Wales Marriages, 1538 – 1940. Database on-line. Provo, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations Inc. www.ancestry.com : 2008.
  5. Lawrence Heyworth. https://alchetron.com/Lawrence-Heyworth-1113173-W
  6. Power loom. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_loom
  7. Life in 19th century Britain. http://www.localhistories.org/19thcent
  8. The London Gazette, 2 January 1816 – 29 June 1816. https://books.google.co.za/
  9. Information and photo of pastel portrait received electronically in May 2019 from Amelia Brady of London, United Kingdom
  10. Bains, E. & Parson. W. 1825. History, Directory and Gazetteer of the County Palatine of Lancaster with a variety of commercial & statistical information. Vol 2. Longman, Hurst & Co.: London. https://books.google.co.za
  11. The London Gazette, Part 1 (1 January – 27 June 1828). https://books.google.co.za/
  12. The Law Advertiser, Vol 9 (40), 6 October 1831. https://books.google.co.za/
  13. Heyworth, Illinois. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heyworth,_Illinois
  14. Walford, E. 1886 The county families of the United Kingdom; or, Royal manual of the titled and untitled aristocracy of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Chatto & Windus: London. https://books.google.co.za
  15. The Gentleman’s Magazine (London, England). Jul-Dec 1844, Vol 176, p424. John Bowyer Nichols and Son: London. https://books.google.co.za
  16. Burke, B. 1884 The general armory of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales; comprising a registry of armorial bearings from the earliest to the present time. Harrison: London. https://books.google.co.za
  17. Reaney, P.H. (& Wilson, R.M.) 1961. A dictionary of British surnames. 2nd Ed. Routledge and Kegan Paul: London
  18. Family notes compiled in 1965 by Alexander James Heyworth (1922 – 2010). Privately held by Tony Jamison, Randfontein, South Africa
  19. Lawrence Heyworth. England & Wales, National Probate Calender (Index of Wills and Administration), 1858 – 1966. Database on-line. Provo, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations Inc. www.ancestry.com : 2010. htpps://interactive.ancestry.com
  20. Family notes by Evelyn Mary Jamison. Privately held by Tony Jamison, Randfontein, South Africa
  21. Purchasing Power of British Pounds from 1270 to Present. https://www.measuringworth.com/ppoweruk
  22. A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe. http://www.thepeerage.com
  23. Baptisms at St Mary the Virgin in the District of West Derby, Liverpool in the Registers for the years 1813 – 1842. http://www.lan-opc.org.uk/Liverpool/West-Derby/stmary/baptisms_1823-1832.
  24. St Mary the Virgin and St James, West Derby. http://www.stmarywestderby.org
  25. Richard Potter. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Potter_(businessman)
  26. Donnelly, S. 2015 Beatrice Webb – the early years. The London School of Economics and Political Science. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/lsehistory/2015/01/22/beatrice-webb-the-early-years/
  27. Catherine Courtney, Baroness Courtney of Penwith. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_Courtney,_Baroness_Courtney_of_Penwith
  28. Leonard Courtney, 1st Baron Courtney of Penwith. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Courtney,_1st_Baron_Courtney_of_Penwith
  29. Emily Hobhouse. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emily_Hobhouse
  30. Emily Hobhouse. https://www.angloboerwar.com/other-information/16-other-information/1847-emily-hobhouse
  31. D. Meinertzhagen. London remembers. https://www.londonremembers.com/subjects/d-meinertzhagen
  32. Richard Meinertzhagen. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Meinertzhagen
  33. Garfield, B.W. 2008 The Meinertzhagen Mystery. The life and legend of a colossal fraud. 1st Ed. Potonac Books, Inc.: Sterling, USA
  34. Harms, M.M. 6 May 2019. Ruffled feathers and Lawrence of Arabia. https://www.thepeltast.net/2019/05/
  35. T.E. Lawrence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._E._Lawrence
  36. The friends of the Great Hall & Archive of St Bartholomew’s Hospital. http://www.bartsgreathall.com/index.php/st-barts/history-of-barts
  37. Cripps, William Harrison (1850-1923) ) Plarr’s lives of the fellows online. Royal College of Surgeons. http://livesonline.rcseng.ac.uk/biogs/E001327b
  38. Charles Cripps, 1st Baron Parmoor. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Cripps,_1st_Baron_Parmoor
  39. Henry Hobhouse (East Somerset MP). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Hobhouse_(East_Somerset_MP)
  40. Hadspen House. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadspen_House
  41. Group photo of the Hobhouse family with children and in-laws. National Portrait Gallery, London. https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw168124
  42. Stephen Hobhouse. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hobhouse
  43. Arthur Hobhouse. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Hobhouse
  44. Hobhouse, Sir John Richard. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/33905
  45. Captain Paul Edward Hobhouse,. Find A Grave. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/16081309/paul-edward-hobhouse
  46. South African owner to transform Hadspen House in Somerset into hotel. April 2018. The Hotel Property Team. https://thpt.co.uk/south-african-owner-to-transform-hadspen-house-in-somerset-into-hotel/
  47. Hadspen House. The Newt in Somerset. https://thenewtinsomerset.com/hotel/hadspen-house
  48. Information and photos received on 10 August 2020 from the archivist of Emily Estate, Kate Jarvis of Bruton, Somerset, England
  49. Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidney_Webb,_1st_Baron_Passfield
  50. Beatrice Webb. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatrice_Webb
  51. Georgina Bevan. https://www.myheritage.com/names/georgina_bevan
  52. Georgina Bevan (1832 – 1899). https://www.ancestry.co.uk/genealogy/records/georgina-bevan-24-dprcs
  53. Liverpool Institute High School for Boys. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool_Institute_High_School_for_Boys
  54. James Heyworth. https://www.myheritage.com/names/james_heyworth
  55. Francis E. Heyworth (abt 1873). https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Heyworth-17
  56. James Ormerod Heyworth, 1866  -1928). https://www.myheritage.com/names/james_heyworth
  57. James Ormerod Heyworth. https://prabook.com/web/james_ormerod.heyworth/1088099
  58. Heyworth Building. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heyworth_Building
  59. Otto Young. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Young
  60. Wedding Announcement. The Inter Ocean Newspaper, Chicago, Illinois, Thursday, 12 October 1893, p 13. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/8584276/wedding-announcement/
  61. Mellington Hall Country Hotel and Caravan Park. https://www.mellingtonhallcaravanpark.co.uk/
  62. Stamp Community Family. Brixton-Chrome Inc. Auctioneers. https://www.stampcommunity.org/topic.asp?ARCHIVE=true&TOPIC_ID=34815&whichpage=1
  63. Record of birth, marriage and death of Sydney Heyworth Heap. https://www.identitynumber.org
  64. Information and photos received in February 2018 and August 2020 from Maggie Ellis (née Heyworth) of Loxley, Alabama, USA, great-great-granddaughter of Lawrence and Elizabeth Heyworth

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